wtorek, 15 marca 2011

Planowanie ogrodu warzywnego c.d.

Mając wybrany kształt zagonu ustalamy plan uprawy. Często bywa tak, że mamy ograniczone miejsce na ogródek warzywny. Dlatego należy go optymalnie wykorzystać. W tym celu stosuje się uprawę współrzędną, tzn. jednoczesną uprawę na zagonie kilku gatunków roślin. Można również zaplanować obsadzenie zagona od wiosny do zimy kolejno następującymi po sobie roślinami.
W obu wypadkach uprawa współrzędna i następstwo roślin musimy zwracać uwagę na wzajemną tolerancję wszystkich uprawianych gatunków.

W ogrodzie ekologicznym uprawa współrzędna odgrywa ważną rolę i ma wiele zalet:
- oszczędza miejsce, zwłaszcza, gdy sadzi się w przerwach między roślinami, a więc na przemian.
- dzięki wydzielinom korzeniowym określone gatunki mogą wspomagać swój rozwój
- niektóre rośliny chronią swoich sąsiadów przed szkodnikami i chorobami.

Chcąc zastosować uprawę współrzędną należy pamiętać o nietolerancji poszczególnych roślin. Istnieją rośliny szkodzące sobie nawzajem swoimi wydzielinami korzeniowymi. Roślin tych nie należy sadzić obok siebie i na sąsiednim zagonie. Rośliny również nie powinny zabierać sobie miejsca ani nad ani pod ziemią. W miarę możliwości sadzić obok siebie gatunki o szerokim systemie korzeniowym np. sałata i palowym np. marchew lub z ulistnieniem rozłożystym i z liśćmi wzniesionymi np. truskawka i cebula.
Niektóre gatunki warzyw rozrastają się silnie zagłuszając słabszych sąsiadów na zagonie. Przykładem mogą być ogórki między kalarepą. Kalarepa nie będzie mogła rozwinąć się dostatecznie, ponieważ ogórki pokryją wkrótce cały zagon. Ważne jest też, aby rośliny uprawiane współrzędnie miały możliwie zbliżone potrzeby pokarmowe.

Poniżej przedstawiam tabelę Dobrzy i źli sąsiedzi w uprawie współrzędnej.
(Obraz się powiększy gdy się na niego kliknie)



Następstwo roślin
Warzywa niektórych gatunków zajmują zagon przez prawie całe lato. Rośliny takie nazywamy plonem głównym. Należą do nich pomidor, cukinia, ogórek, wszystkie kapustne, seler. Inne gatunki już po paru tygodniach osiągają dojrzałość zbiorczą. Można je uprawiać jako przedplon, międzyplon lub poplon.
Przedplon to rośliny uprawiane wiosną przed plonem głównym. Typowym przedplonem jest sałata, rzodkiewka i kalarepa.
Międzyplon nazywamy rośliny uprawiane razem z plonem głównym, ale wcześniej od niego osiągają dojrzałość zbiorczą. Międzyplonem może być sałata głowiasta i brokuł. Nadają się również rzodkiewka i kalarepa.
Poplon wysiewa się lub sadzi dopiero późnym latem lub jesienią po zbiorze plonu głównego. Poplonem może być roszponka i endywia.

Ogarnięcie tego jest dość trudne, dlatego warto:
- naszkicować sobie powierzchnię ogrodu i nanieść zaplanowane zagony,
- następnie ustalić gatunki warzyw, jakie chce się uprawiać,
- ustalić rośliny główne (np. pomidor, ogórek, seler, szpinak, cukinia, kapusta, kalafior, brokuły, brukselka, karczoch, roszponka.)Podzielić te gatunki według ich potrzeb pokarmowych dla bardzo, średnio i mało wyczerpujących glebę.
- ustalić przedplon i poplon

Prostszą metodą dla początkującego ogrodnika jest zmianowanie roślin(płodozmian). Zmianowanie polega na corocznym następstwie gatunków warzyw uprawianym w danym miejscu. Celem zmianowania jest ograniczenie rozwoju chorób i szkodników pochodzenia glebowego właściwych dla danego gatunku.
Niektóre warzywa jak np. ziemniaki rozrastają się i zagłuszają chwasty po nich, więc można uprawiać cebulę, która wymaga częstego odchwaszczania. Warzywa z rodziny motylkowatych jak groch, fasola wiążą azot w brodawkach korzeni udostępniając go później uprawianym roślinom. Po motylkowych roślinach dobrze jest uprawiać warzywa kapustne, ziemniaki, szpinak.
Oto kilka schematów, które na pewno wam w tym pomogą.




Tyle na dzisiaj Pozdrawiam serdecznie :)

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